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981 Huguenot Trail
Midlothian, Virginia 23113

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Originally posted by Jeffrey Weaver on his New River Notes Site. [mirrored May
2000] Corrections made 1/2004.

R. A. Brock

Documents, Chiefly Unpublished relating to the
Hugenot Emigration

to Virginia and to the Settlement at Manakin Town,
Published by the Virginia Historical Society
in 1886, Richmond Virginia

INTRODUCTION
The history of the religious persecution of the Huguenots in France, from the
massacre of St. Bartholomew to the infamous outrages which preceded and followed
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, is so familiar, through frequent graphic
narrative, that any attempt at repetition here would be quite unnecessary, were the
means to be employed adequate. But recently this topic has been ably considered,
and a comprehensive narrative of the establishment of the fugitive Protestants in the
New World presented as well. An unpretentious assembling of scattered data
relating to the Huguenot settlement in Virginia, and of families of the lineage,
happily to serve as material in abler hands in the future, may only be essayed by the
present editor.


Desultory Walloon emigration to Virginia early in the seventeenth century is
indicated by names of record in the State Land Registry; and the Walloons of Leyden,
planning to follow the example of their Puritan neighbors, the Pilgrim Fathers of
New England, presented, July 21, 1621, to Sir Dudley Carleton, the British
Ambassador at the Hague, a petition signed by fifty-six heads of families, Walloon
and French, all of the Reformed Religion, who desired to come to Virginia. The
answer of the Council of the Virginia Company, though not altogether adverse,
appears to have been not sufficiently encouraging, as the correspondence went no
further. Eight years later, in June, 1629, a similar application was made to the
English Government, by Antoine de Ridouet, Baron de Seance, in behalf of a body of
French Protestants, asking for encouragement to settle in Virginia. His proposal was
favorably entertained. The emigrants destined for Carolina, landed in Virginia, but
the colony maintained a languid existence for a few years only. An act styled
"Concerning Denizations," giving encouragement to foreign settlers, was passed by
the Colonial Assembly in March, 1657 [1658]. It provides that "all aliens and
strangers who have inhabited the country the space of ffower yeeres, and have a
firme resolution to make this country their place of residence, shall be free denisons
of this collony." etc.


In March, 1659 [1660], and October, 1660, acts of naturalization in favor of John
Johnson, millwright, being a Dutchman; and of Nicholas Boate, severally, were
passed. An act passed September, 1671, allowed "any stranger * * upon petition to
the grand Assembly, and taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy to his
Majesty" to be naturalized, and be capable of office, traffique, and trading, of taking
up, purchasing, conveying, devising and inheriting of lands," etc. Under this act,
patents of naturalization were granted by the Assembly, in September, 1673, to
Joshua Mulder, Henry Weedick, Christopher Regault, Henry ffayson Vandoverage,
John Mattoone, Dominick Theriate, Jeremy Packquitt, Nicholas Cock, Henry
Waggamore, and Thomas Harmenson, aliens; in October, 1673, to John Peterson,
Rowland Anderson, Michaell Valandigam, Minor Doodes, Doodes Minor, and
Herman Kelderman, aliens; in March, 1675 [1676], to Christian Peterson ; in
February, 1576-1677], to Garratt Johnson, and in April, 1679, to Abraham Vincler,
John Michaell, Jacob Johnson, John Pimmitt and John Keeton.


Refuge in Great Britain was sought by the Huguenots early in the sixteenth century,
and in the latter decades of that cycle, emigration thither steadily increasing, had
contributed immensely to the constituent population and useful citizenry of England,
Scotland, Ireland and Wales, comprising all ranks, from the peasant to the nobleartisans, cloth-makers, lace-makers, silk-weavers, glass-makers, printers and
manufacturers. Their skill, industry, and worth speedily secured recognition and
consequent prosperity, and there is scarce a branch of literature, science and art in
which they have not distinguished themselves. Their descendants may still, at this
day, be numerously, and in honorable station, identified by name, though the family
designations of by far the greater number have long since been completely Anglicized
and ceased to be thus traceable. Between the years 1599 and 1753, there were
established in the city of London alone no less than twenty-eight French churches.


Following the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which was signed on the 18th and
published on the 22d of October, 1685 the exodus thither was immense. "It was
reserved," pungently remarked President John Jay, in his Introductory Address
before the Huguenot Society of America at New York, October 22, 1885 (having
previously referred to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572), "for that most
Christian and grand monarch, Louis XIV, more than a century later, to renew the
persecution of the Huguenots by a crime of similar magnitude; and with folly without
a parallel, to lose for France, by means similarly atrocious, hundreds of thousands of
those same heretics, who carried industry, intelligence and prosperity, light, truth
and happiness to other lands, including our own. Of the number lost to France,
Sismondi computes the total number of emigrants at from 300,000 to 400,000; and
thinks that an equal number perished in prison, on the scaffold, at the galleys, or in
their attempts to escape.

"So far as a moral estimate of the act is concerned, it has been well remarked that the
revocation stands at so indefinite a height among the follies of statesmen that no
exaggeration of facts can aggravate it."i The significant fact in requital, has been
published that eighty-nine descendants of the Huguenots, who were banished from
France by the Revocation, returned in 1870 as officers of the invading German army.


Of the army of William of Orange, numbering eleven thousand, which sailed from
Holland, and by whose aid he obtained the Crown of England, three regiments, each
containing seven hundred and fifty effective men, were Huguenots. To these were
added a squadron of horse. There were also about seven hundred officers distributed
among the other battalions of the army. In gratitude to these zealous and effective
supporters, and in sympathy with the great multitude of their suffering brethren
driven violently from their homes and native country simply for their religion, the
king invited them to make their home in his new dominions.


Many of such refugees soon turned their eyes to America and sought a home in
Virginia. Many families took their residence along the Potomac, Rappahannock and
James rivers.


The expenses of transportation to America was usually borne by the Relief
Committee in London. In fact, no small part of the Royal bounty-the English people's
bounty-went to pay for the passage of the refugees across the ocean.


In the year 1700, as enumerated in the documents herewith presented, more than
five hundred emigrants, at the head of whom was the Marquis de la Muce, were
landed in Virginia by four successive debarkations. Three ministers of the Gospel,
and two physicians were among the number. The ministers are Claude Phillipe de
Richebourg, Benjamin de Joux, and Louis Latané. The physicians were Castaing
[Chastain?] and La Sosée.


Preparations for this important movement had lung been on foot, and more than
once its destination had been changed. Two years before the date of the embarkation,
negotiations were opened by the leaders of the body with Dr. Daniel Coxe,
"proprietary of Carolana and Florida," for the purchase of half a million acres of land
in the latter territory. The tract in question was situated near Appalachee Bay, and
the purchasers were to have the privilege of an additional half million of acres at the
nominal rent of "a ripe Ear of Indian Come in the season" for the first seven years. At
another time Carolina was the objective point of the expedition.A third site suggested
for the settlement was in Norfolk county, Virginia, on the Nansemond river, in the
neighborhood of the Dismal Swamp. They appear to have settled at different
points; a portion about Jamestown, some in Norfolk county, others in Surry, and two
hundred or more at a spot some twenty miles above Richmond, on the south side of
James river (now in Powhatan county), where ten thousand acres of land, which had
been occupied by the extinct Manakin, tribe of Indians, were given them. They were
also exempted from the payment of all taxes for seven years, and were allowed to
support their minister in their own way. Accordingly, in dividing the grant into
farms, all running down to the river in narrow slips, a portion of the most valuable
was set apart for the minister, and was thus possessed and used whilst one resided in
the parish. It was afterwards rented out, and the proceeds paid for such occasional
services as were rendered by neighboring ministers. Bishop Meade states, 1857,
that services were then regularly held in the old church at Manakin-Town settlement.


According to Beverley, the emigrants, in 1702, "began an Essay of Wine, which they
made of the wild grapes gathered in the woods; the effect of which was a strongbodied
Claret, of good flavour." The interesting fact is exhibited in the documents
presented herewith (page 43), that the discovery of bituminous coal in Virginia was
near the Manakin-Town settlement early in 1701. This deposit, supsequently known
as the Dover Mines, it is alleged, was the first mined in Virginia. It is believed that
bituminous coal was not to any extent used as a fuel in the State until after the
Revolution, and then for a considerable period only for the heating of residences
The Dover Mines were last operated in 1870 under the management of General
Charles P. Stone, formerly of the United States Army, and late of the staff of the
Khedive of Egypt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                          Map of Manakin Town


Among the names which have been preserved of the ministers who served the parish
of King William regularly, or occasionally, were the following: Benjamin de Joux,
until his death in 1704; Claude Phillipe de Richbourg, removed to Carolina in 1707 ;
Jean Cairon, died in 1716; Peter Fontaine, 1720, 1721 Francis Fontaine, 1722-24;
William Finney, 1722, and probably later; William Murdaugh, of St. James Northam,
Goochland, and Zachariah Brooke, of Hanover county, in 1727; Mr. Nearne, or Neirn,
1727, 1728 ; David Mossom, of St. Peter's parish, New Kent county, 1727; Mr. Swift
and Daniel Taylor, of Blissland parish, New Kent county, in 1728 and 1729; James
Marye, 1731-1735 ; Anthony Gavain, 1739. From 1750 to 1780, the Rev. William
Douglass, of Goochland; and other neighboring ministers occasionally served it.
supsequently the Rev. Mr. Hopkins, of Goochland, was the minister.

It is exhibited that there were numerous instances of individual settlement of French
Huguenots in Virginia prior and supsequent to the influx of 1700. The names of
Barraud, Bertrand , Boisseaut , Bowdoin , Cazenove, Contesse, Cottrell ,
Forloines, Flournoy , Fuqua, Ghiselin, Jacquelin, Jouet , Lacy, Mauzy, Michie,
Micou, Moncure, Seay , Trezevant and others, have been most estimably
represented.


The family, De Cazenove. (or De Castionovo, which is the original orthography of the
name), was an old and respectable one in the south of France. The name and history
began with a knight, who, in the year 993, added the name to his baptismal
appellation, adopted a "new castle" as his coat-of-arms and styled himself Sieur
Cazenove. Several knights of the name engaged in the crusades. During the reign of
Henry IV, Guilliame De Cazenove was entitled Admiral. But during the religious
troubles, from the time of the Reformation to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes,
the Cazenoves became impoverished. Some of them fled to Switzerland. Paul
Cazenove married Marie Plantamore, of Noyons, and his three sons were admitted
citizens of Geneva. Jean, the eldest son of Pierre Cazenove, married Elizabeth,
daughter of Jacob Bressonnet, Doctor of Theology and president of the Consistory.
Paul Cazenove, the son of Jean, was so unfortunate as to live in the days of the
French Revolution, and he and his two sons, Jean Antoine and Antoine Charles, were
imprisoned with several of the Genevese aristocracy, and his wife was kept under
guard at Mont Brilliant, a beautiful country seat on the banks of lake Geneva. They
were tried before the Revolutionary tribunal and were condemned to death. But,
fortunately, just at this time Robespierre was overthrown and the work of death was
stayed. Being obnoxious to the Jacobins (both having been educated at the military
school of Calmar, in Germany), the two brothers, in company with Albert Gallatin,
sailed to this country to await more quiet times, for Jean had been a military
instructor and leader of the aristocracy, and Charles had once held a commission in
the unfortunate Swiss body-guard of Louis XVI. The brothers married in this
country, sisters, the daughters of Edmond Hagan, a political refugee from Ireland.
When the troubles in Europe were stilled, Jean returned to Geneva and died, leaving
no male issue. Antoine Charles took up his residence about the year 1799 in
Alexandria, Virginia, where, as a commission merchant and a polished Christian
gentleman, he passed a long life, highly respected. His descendants are numerous
and widely scattered from Massachusetts to Georgia. Another branch of the family
settled in Holland. A descendant, Theophile Cazenove, Dutch minister to the United
States, led over a colony of Hollanders to Central New York, which settled in and
around the town, Cazenove. Still another branch of the family returned from Geneva
to France and its representatives now reside in Lyons. Raoul De Cazenove is the
head.


Dr. Louis Contesse lived and practiced his profession in Williamsburg, Virginia,
during the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Neither the date of his emigration,
nor the definite place of his birth in France have been transmitted. He patented,
August 12, 1725, two tracts of land of 400 acres each on the south side of James river
in Henrico county. The first is described as lying near the land of John Lavillain, and
the second as being bounded by the lands of Francis and John James fflornoy
(Flournoy).


His only daughter, Anne Contesse, married John Tyler, Marshall of the Court of Vice-
Admiralty of Virginia. Her son, John Tyler, the father of President John Tyler, was
born February 28, 1747, and died January 6, 1813. He was successively Speaker of the
House' of Delegates, Judge of the General Court, Governor of the State, and Judge of
the United States District Court for Virginia. The name, Contesse, survives only as a
Christian appellation in Virginia, but the lineage is represented in the names of Tyler,
Seawell, Bouldin, Greenhow, and others similarly esteemed.


Edward Jaquelin or Jacquelin, son of John and Elizabeth (Craddock) Jaquelin, of
county Kent, England, and a descendant of a Protestant refugee from La Vendee,
France, during the reign of Charles IX, of the same lineage as the noble family of La
Roche Jaqueline, came to Virginia in 1697, settled at Jamestown, married Miss Cary,
of Warwick county, and died in 1730, leaving issue three sons (Edward, the eldest)-
neither of whom married-and three daughters : Elizabeth, who married Richard
Ambler ; Mary, who married John Smith, who is believed to have been a member of
the House of Burgesses, of the Council, and of the Board of Visitors of William and
Mary College; Martha, who died unmarried in 1804, aged 93 years. Edward Jaquelin
"died as he had lived, one of the most wealthy men in the colony."


Richard Ambler, son of John Ambler, sheriff of county York, England, in 1721,
migrated to Virginia early in the eighteenth century, settled at Yorktown, married
Elizabeth Jaquelin and had issue nine children, all of whom died at early age, except
three sons: Edward, collector of the port of York, married and left issue. He was a
man of consideration in the colony, and when Lord Botetourt came over as Governor,
he brought a letter of introduction to him from Samuel Athawes, merchant,
London. John, born December. 31st, 1735, Burgess from Jamestown, and Collector
of the District of York River, died May 27, 1766, in Barbadoes. Jaquelin, born August
9, 1742; married Rebecca, daughter of Lewis Burwell, of "White Marsh," Gloucester
county, member of the Virginia Council during the Revolution and long State
Treasurer. He left issue : Eliza, married first, William Brent of Stafford county, and
secondly, Colonel Edward Carrington, of the Revolution, and member of Congress
(no issue). Mary Willis married Chief Justice John Marshall. Anne married George
Fisher, of Richmond. Lucy married Daniel Call, lawyer and legal reporter, Richmond.
Upon the tomb of John Ambler, of Jamestown, Virginia (born September 25th, 1762,
died September 8th, 1836), in Shockoe Hill Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia, the
Ambler and Jaquelin arms are quartered. Ambler-Sa. on a fesse, or. between three
pheons, ar, a lion passant guardant gu. Jaquelin- On a bend, three roses. Crest -
Two dexter hands conjoined sustaining a mural crown. The descendants of Edward
jaquelin and Richard Ambler have intermarried with the families of Baylor, Byrd,
Carter, Nicholas, Norton, Randolph, Wickham, and others of prominence.


William Lacy, a grandson of the emigrant ancestor of the family in Virginia, with his
wife, Elizabeth, appear to have been residents of King William parish in 1741. In that
year a son, David, was born to them, and in 1743, another son, Henry. According to
Foote (p.582), William Lacy and his wife, "Catherine Rice," removed to Chesterfield
county, where their son Drury, with a twin sister, was born October 5th, 1758. An
accident in childhood, the explosion of a musket, by which he lost his left hand
decided the future course of the life of Drury Lacy, and induced him to strive to
obtain an education to fit himself for a teacher or some profession. While engaged in
teaching in a private family, he came under the notice of Rev. John B. Smith,
President of Hampden Sydney College, by whom he was encouraged and assisted in
completing a classical education. He became a minister of the Gospel; and was for
years Vice-President of the college at which he had been educated. He possessed
marked powers of oratory. He could lift up his voice like a trumpet, and its silvery
notes fell sweetly upon the ears of the most distant auditors in large congregations,
wherever assembled, in houses or in the open air. A silver finger affixed to the wrist
of his shattered hand gave him the name of the "silver hand."


The Church remembers him as Lacy of the "silver hand and silver voice." He married
a Miss Smith, and reared three sons and two daughters. Two of the sons became
ministers of the Gospel. The eldest, William Smith Lacy, preached for a time as a
missionary, and then became pioneer of the Church in Arkansas. The youngest,
Drury, was pastor for some time in Raleigh, North Carolina; then served as President
of Davidson College; and supsequently as chaplain in the State hospitals. The third
son became a physician. Each of the sons reared a son for the ministry. Of these, one,
the Rev. B. T. Lacy, was the chosen chaplain of General T. J. Jackson, Confederate
States Army, and another was a chaplain in the Army of Northern Virginia. Two
grandsons entered the army; one died in Petersburg from disease brought on by
exposure; and the other, Major J. Horace Lacy, saw much active service.


The two daughters each married Presbyterian ministers. The elder became the wife of
Samuel Davies Hoge. the son of Rev. Moses Hoge, D. D., Professor of Theology of the
Virginia Synod. Her two sons entered the ministry. The elder is the distinguished
pulpit orator, Rev. Moses Drury Hoge, D. D., pastor of the second Presbyterian
Church, Richmond, Virginia. The younger son, Rev. William James Hoge. D. D., died
in 1864, pastor of the Tabb Street Church, Petersburg, Virginia. The youngest
daughter married Rev. James H. Brookes, and reared one son for the ministry, who is
now pastor of a church in St. Louis, Missouri.


Henry Mauzy fled from France in 1685, emigrated to Virginia and settled in Fauquier
county.. He married, probably in England, a daughter of a Dr. Conyers. Their son,
John Mauzy, married Hester Foote, grand-aunt of Hon. Henry S. Foote, of the United
States and Confederate States Congresses and Governor of Mississippi. Another son,
Henry Mauzy, born 1721, married Elizabeth Taylor, born '735. He died in 1804, and
she in 1829. They left issue, among other children, the following sons and daughters
John, Thomas, Richard, Michael, and the late Colonel Joseph Mauzy, of Rockingham
county, whose son Richard is the editor of the Staunton Spectator. Susannah, one of
the daughters, born 1765, married Charles Kemper, born 1756. She died in 1843; and
he in 1841


Paul Micou was a fugitive from Nantes. After some years of exile, probably in
England, he emigrated to Virginia, and settled in Essex county. He had been
educated for the bar, and was a man of great and acknowledged worth. He served as
a justice of the peace from 1700 to 1720. He died May 23, 1736; aged seventy-eight
years. A son, Paul Micou, Jr., served also as justice of the peace for Essex, 1740-1760,'
and a grandson of the same name, for the period 1780-1800. One of his daughters
married Rev. J. W. Giborne, of Lunenburgh parish, Richmond county.


Another daughter, Judith Micou, married Lunsford Lomax. His son, Major Thomas
Lomax, was the father of Judge John Tayloe Lomax, so long and favorably known in
the Virginia courts. Another daughter married Moore Fauntleroy, whose ancestor,
Lieutenant-Colonel Moore Fauntleroy, was a patentee of lands in New Norfolk
county in 1643. A descendant in the present generation of Paul Micou, the venerable
James Roy Micou, has, served as clerk of Essex for quite a half century. Another
descendant, Mr. A. R. Micou, formerly editor of the Tidewater Index, is the present
State Superintendent of Public Printing. Rev. John Moncure, the progenitor of the
worthy family of the name, was of Huguenot descent. One of his daughters, Jean,
who possessed the poetic gift, was a highly intelligent lady, zealously pious, and
abounding in philanthropy; was the wife of General James Wood, Governor of
Virginia. Another honored descendant was the late learned and guileless Judge,
Richard C. L. Moncure, of the Court of Appeals of Virginia.


                                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

1693  A Declaration of the Opinion of the French Ministers, who are now
           Refugees in England, about some points of Religion in Opposition to the                               Socinians
1698. Proposalls Humbly Submitted [by W. Byrd] to the Lords of ye Councill of
           Trade and Plantations for Sending ye French Protestants to Virginia
1700. Records Relating to the Huguenot Emigration to Virginia. Contributions
            in aid of the Refugees
            List of all ye Passengers from London to James River in Virginia, being
            French Refugees imbarque'd in the Ship, ye Peter and Anthony, Galley of
            London, Daniel Perreau, Commander
           An Acc't of what Money Rec'd for ye Transport and Supplies of the Ffrench
           Refugees
           An Acc't of ye Money lay'd out for the Transport and Supplies of ye French
           Refugees
           Liste des Personnes du Second Convoy qui serent toute l'annde a
           Manicanton
           A List of the Refugees who are to receive of ye Miller of Falling Creek Mill,
           one bushel a bead of Indian Meale Monthly, as settled at or about King
           William's Town to begin in Feb
1701   Rolle des Francois, Suisses, Genevois, Alemans, et Flamans, embarques
            dam le navire nemmd le Nasseau pour aller a la Virginie
            Memorandum, Cash paid by Severall for ye use of ye Ffrench Refugees
1700.  December 27.-Proceedings of the Virginia Council
1701.   May 10.-The State of the Ffrench Refugees-Report of W. Byrd
             A List of ye French Refugees that are settled att ye Mannachin Town. In ye
             first ship
             The names of such as came in the second ship
             Those that came in the third ship settled between the creeks
             Those that came in the fourth ship and are settled between the creeks
             Those that came in the second and fourth ships and are seated below the
              creek
              In the Fourth ship
             Below the Creek
1700.   A collection of all matters relating to the French Protestant Refugees
             October 25.-Proceedings of the Council
             November 14-Proceedings of the Council
             December 9.-Agreement with Dr. Daniel Coxe
             An abstract of "The Coppy of Dr. Coxe's Title he claimes in Norffolk
             county"
             Petition of the Refugees to Governor Nicholson
             December 5.-Act of the Virginia Assembly creating King William Parish,
             and exempting the settlers from tax for seven years
             December 23.-Petition of the Settlers for Relief
             subscriptions for them
1700    February.-Letter announcing the death of Tertullian Sehult, etc
1704    April 24.-Naturalization of French Refugees
1706    August 14.-Petition of Daniel Bloüet
1707    September 2.-Answer of Abraham Sallé to the petition of Rev. Claude
            Phillippe De Richebourg in regard to Parish disputes
1710    November 18.-Proceedings of the Council regarding distribution of land
             among the settlers
1714     Liste Generalle de tons les Francois Protestants Refugies, establys dans Ia
             paroisse du Roy Guillaume, Comté d' Henrico en Virginia, y Compris les
             Femmes, Enfans, Veuses, et Orphelins
1721    March 25.-Register of Baptisms at Manikin-Town
1728    July 4.-Letter to Rev. Mr. Nearne
1744    June.-A list of King William Parish


ERRATA AND CORRIGENDA


Page 129. For Confederary read Confederacy.
Page 52.   For Charles V read Charles I.
Page 152. For Louis IV read Louis XIV.
155. "Saunders' should be Saunders.
165. For Issue of Mary and (Dupuy) Dickinson read Issue of L. and Mary (Dupuy)
Dickinson. 176. For Issue of - and Sallie (Dupuy) Thomason read Issue of Poindexter
and Sallie (Dupuy) Thomason.
187. John Lawrence Marye is stated to have "graduated A. B. and B. L. University of
Virginia, ' an error into which the editor was led by genealogic data supplied him,
prepared by James Theodosius Marye in 1858. Hon. J. L. Marye graduated in 1840-
42 in the schools equivalent to those now required for the degree A. B., but at that
period such degree was not awarded by the University of Virginia. The law studies of
Mr. Marye were pursued in Fredericksburg, Va.